Simply put, lampworking is melting glass and then manipulating the molten glass by hand tools or/and by blowing. The name Lampworking comes from the times when this art was performed by using oil-fuelled lamps. Nowadays, modern torches are used, hence the modern term Torchworking. I use both soft and hard glass and melt them in an oxygen-fed propane torch -its heat reaches about 1,500 °C (2,700 °F). Additionally, I use various granite tools, mandrels, special opals, fine silver, and gold for fuming. The art of lampworking would remain incomplete if the finished pieces don’t go through an annealing process. This is a process where the cooling down phase is controlled in a scientific way to release the glass from all internal stress caused by thermal shock, which would render the piece fragile, easy to break and/or even crack on its own at some point. Thankfully we have modern kilns to eliminate that problem once and for all.